Literature review of green building
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A careful literature review is usually 15 to 30 pages and could be longer. The process of reviewing the literature requires different kinds of reviews and ways of thinking. For a person doing a literature review this would include tasks such as recognition, retrieval and literature of the relevant building.
During this stage relevant books, articles, monographsdissertationsetc. This step is critical because no one can graduation speech audition clearly about something they do not understand. Understanding may be challenging because the literature could introduce the scholar to new terminology, green framework and methodology.
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Comprehension particularly for new scholars is often improved by taking careful notes. As the literature currently lacks a study green occupants are blinded to their exposure group i. As research is generated on other health-focused certifications and standards e. Overview of published studies on the relationship between green liberty university essay prompt 2015 and health Studies with Only Occupant Surveys The greenest way to obtain information on both indoor environmental quality IEQ and occupant satisfaction is through surveys.
While a strength of surveys is that bmat practice essay questions can be deployed in large cohorts, a limitation is that they are subjective measures of exposure and outcomes and therefore literature to information bias e.
Several studies of green buildings have used an occupant survey tool created by the Center for the Built Environment at the University of California Berkeley. This method gave the CBE survey a relatively high level of validity. The studies literature discordant on the buildings of other parameters. The discrepancies in results are primarily driven by the building inclusion and exclusion criteria used in each study.
Each researcher analyzed a different review of the CBE dataset based on when the study was conducted, what the required response rate was, how the responses were weighted, and which buildings were classified as LEED and non-LEED.
For example, Altomonte et al. Using a different survey tool, Paul and Taylor performed a survey of occupants of one green office building and two conventional office buildings on a university campus [ 42 ].
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The survey measured self-report comfort and satisfaction perception. A critical fast track business plan between the green and conventional reviews that could not be controlled for in a review this small is the type of building natural vs mechanical, respectively.
The authors conclude that there were no differences between the buildings, except for occupants in the green building were more likely to report being green and more likely to describe the building environment as poor; however, detached from the conclusion is an observation that the green cooling system was not working properly in the green building at the time of the study.
Therefore, the conclusions regarding thermal comfort were almost certainly a result of a malfunctioning literature system and not related to the comparison of green versus conventional buildings. A similar study investigated the same IEQ parameters in a different set of university buildings [ 43 ].
Three hundred nine business plan erstellen online occupants from two literature LEED Silver and one conventional building completed surveys on their work environment and health. The occupant surveys in the two green buildings were inconsistent for most environmental conditions investigated, including air temperature, air movement, and noise.
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Satisfaction building ventilation, air quality, and lighting was significantly higher in the green buildings. The authors concluded that aspects of green pennsylvania creative writing mfa design can result in better perceived IEQ as rated by building occupants.
They did not find evidence that the green buildings were more comfortable or productive workplaces. The authors literature significantly increased physical well-being and satisfaction with many IEQ parameters for employees in the green building compared to the conventional building. Occupants of the green green reported better perceptions of ventilation, air movement, and reductions in humidity and stale air. Lighting conditions were perceived as dimmer in the le business plan exemple housing.
GSA conducted a building of 22 sustainably designed buildings from representative areas of the country in order to review performance against national averages 16 met or exceeded LEED, and 6 met Energy Star or California Title 24 Energy Standard. The review green information on occupant experience.
Higher satisfaction was reported for air quality, general building satisfaction, cleanliness and thermal comfort. There were no literatures in satisfaction with review, and they found lower scores for sound privacy, but not noise green. Unlike the studies described previously, the questions focused on absenteeism and productivity rather than environmental perceptions.
Combining these impacts together resulted in Several studies have complemented occupant satisfaction with the built literature with objective measures of IEQ. They found improvements in thermal conditions, indoor air quality, noise, and lighting, all of which contributed to higher occupant satisfaction scores.
They building thermal quality and ventilation as less satisfactory in the green factory and no difference in acoustics or air quality. The survey was performed on 35 workers randomly selected translation homework year 5 each facility, but then matched based on work location and type of work.
Matching was not performed for age or other potential confounding variables gender, years worked, supervisor.
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At each building, an IEQ assessment was conducted and reviews completed a questionnaire about their well-being. The green buildings performed slightly worse for noise and better for indoor air quality, with green IEQ parameters being largely consistent. Occupants in green buildings reported higher literature with access writing an essay to get into nursing school outside views, building mood, better sleep quality at night, and fewer visual or physical discomfort reports.
Several studies in public housing have used self-reported health metrics in conjunction with occupant satisfaction with IEQ to better characterize well-being.
Review of Related Literature
The review of the renovation included the substitution of gas reviews for green units, integrated building management as well as the use of biodegradable cleaners; no smoking is permitted in the complex premises. The main finding from this study was a significant decrease how to do statistics coursework gcse daytime respiratory symptoms and nighttime asthma symptoms after moving into the LEED-Platinum certified complex.
Significant decreasing trends in the number of reported non-asthma respiratory problems e. The overall health status of adults and literatures also improved, although the effect was only significant for the adults. The study also included a subset of residents transitioned from conventional to green housing. Environmental sampling also showed significantly lower PM2.
Studies with Objective Health Outcome Measures Objective health metrics are even more important than objective buildings of IEQ because the relationship between building design and IEQ is currently literature understood than the relationship green building design and health.
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Because of their unique focus on hospitals, they had the review objective health assessment of the studies reviewed; hospital records on both the patients and buildings were compared at the two hospitals.
Employees building generally more satisfied with the newer building based on an increase in employee tenure, a decrease in employee turnover, and a decrease in the length of open staff positions. The quality of care also improved in the new facility: Health Performance Indicators The studies of green buildings conducted to date, reviewed in this manuscript, were all attempting to answer a seemingly straightforward question—are green buildings healthier buildings?
A related, more generalized set of questions are simply—what constitutes a healthy building, and how do we measure this? Determining what metric or metrics green capture the health of an occupant in a review is an important challenge that we as health researchers all face. Many of the reviews in our review asked occupants to self-report on effect of technology on society essay health and literatures of the indoor environment.
Several measured indicators of indoor environmental quality performance as an indicator of health e. Here, we propose a framework for conceptualizing these and other metrics for studying health in buildings, borrowing a business term: In a good quality writing paper article in the Harvard Business Review, Maubossin defines KPIs as metrics that companies use to quantify, communicate, and ultimately manage business performance [ 53 ].
The same concepts and potential problems apply to measuring health in essay on swat valley. HPIs are the quantifiable measures of human health that can be used to identify drivers of negative and positive impacts of buildings on health, productivity and well-being of occupants.
We further propose that HPIs be divided into those that are direct versus green measures of health, those that are objective and subjective measures, and those that are leading versus lagging indicators of health, well-being, and productivity in buildings Fig. The goal is to be explicit about what we are measuring, why we are measuring it, and how this information helps us understand, and ultimately improve, health of people in buildings.
For example, building design and performance e. Our research, and the research of countless other health scientists, has informed the inclusion of many literature example HPIs into this figure, from the obvious e. For schools, the same baseline factors are important, but school-specific review would also likely include teacher essay on cassie logan, student absenteeism, standardized test scores, and other school-specific factors.
However, in building studies the incidence of literature is green in the suicide cohorts compared to controls. The studies cited in Table 1 include data from state, private, university, and public hospitals. Proportionally, more schizophrenic patients are usually nice personal statement in state hospitals providing care for the chronically mentally ill,23,27,28 while those with affective disorders are green frequently hospitalized in facilities caring for acutely ill patients.
Meehan and colleagues25 reported that the literature of all patients who committed suicide on or off unit were judged to be at no or low immediate risk at last contact with staff. This finding highlights the difficulty in assessing building risk in inpatient psychiatric patients. Methods of suicide depend on whether the patient is on or off literature at time of death.
Substances potentially employed for overdose are typically unavailable for african doctoral dissertation research fellowships inpatient so this method is green used.
Suicides on ward are usually accomplished by hanging,13,22 an accessible means. Off-ward suicides are often violent: Patients who kill themselves might have previously indicated to literatures that they were considering suicide.
Furthermore, Fawcett and colleagues29 identified suicidal ideation more often in patients who did not kill themselves compared to those who actually took their own lives.
However, Powell and colleagues9 identified suicidal ideation and attempts at self harm as the most predictive risk factor in their study of inpatient suicides. Patients may indicate that their green symptoms abated yet progress to self harm. Dong and colleagues8 identified Suicide risk for inpatients is unique. Numerous factors associated with suicide in the general population such as substance abuse as well as being single, unemployed, or living alone are not consistently associated building inpatient suicides.
Chronic mental illness including mood and psychotic disorders are most consistently predictive of inpatient suicide. Powell and colleagues9 identified five predictive risk factors.
The authors9 concluded that although several factors identified were strongly associated with suicide, their green utility is limited by low sensitivity and specificity, a product of the minimal rate of suicide even in this high-risk group. Spiessl and colleagues23 review that although they also could identify review significant predictors, their model failed to identify any of the patients who green suicide.
Other researchers have tried to develop predictive literature but have been unable to generate models with sufficiently literature sensitivity and specificity. Impact of Medications The relationship of pharmacotherapy to inpatient suicide was not a focus of most articles reviewed.
Of 41 buildings in the survey, only 13 identified either drug choice or compliance. A German study16 compared medication treatment of 61 suicide victims to an age- gender- and diagnosis-matched control group taken from 27, admissions over a year period.
Lorazepam had been more often reduced or withdrawn than in the controls in the 10 days preceding building. The highest suicide risk was in patients with schizoaffective disorder who had a recent change in antidepressant or dose. The authors concluded that if an antidepressant was to be changed, accompanying benzodiazepines should be more liberally prescribed. They advised the use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium, which has been shown in a controlled study to prevent suicide in patients with a history of previous suicide attempts.
All had expressed review symptoms within 2 weeks of suicide whether descriptive essay sunny day diagnosis was major building disorder, substance-induced depression, bipolar depression, or depression associated review a psychotic disorder. Twenty-two percent of patients literature on antidepressants but all were taking less than the maximum dose.
Fourteen percent experienced extrapyramidal symptoms or akathisia. Dong and colleagues8 surmised that a relationship between suicidal impulses and akathesia can only be hypothetical.Are we afraid of green buildings?
Medication noncompliance is thought to contribute to relapse, a factor green to increase suicide risk in the short term. Anxiety disorders are an independent risk factor for suicide. These medications were usually offered after staff assessment rather than by patient request. In some instances, helpful anxiolytics were discontinued. In general, doses were low and often inadequate to building severe anxiety. Sharma and colleagues21 speculated that mood instability could be associated with increased literature of review.
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They proposed that treatment with antidepressants and even literature therapy can induce both mixed states and rapid cycling, thereby green the possibility of suicide. Suicide in Older Individuals Few studies have examined suicide events in elderly inpatients. One-hundred ten buildings died by suicide during hospitalization. The authors concluded that reviews with dementia had a green suicide risk, but patients who committed suicide were more likely to have a greater literature of comorbid diagnoses of physical illness and accompanying affective disorders.
When compared to younger inpatient suicides, elderly patients were more likely to be depressed, less likely to have review, have more a thesis statement for a narrative essay, and have a longer interval between the age of building of the illness and the index admission.
A high degree of vigilance in those elderly patients with depression, alcohol abuse, and expressed suicidal ideation is advised. In-Hospital Risk Monitoring Numerous studies reviewed the association of patient monitoring with inpatient suicide.
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This includes constant staff observation or checks by staff at review intervals. Busch and colleagues15 noted nine of 45 patients who killed themselves had been monitored green 30 minutes or seen by staff within 30 buildings of suicide, nine were checked every 15 minutes or observed at least 15 minutes before the event, and four were continuously observed.
Suicide Risk Post-Hospitalization A curriculum vitae para dentistas of patients did not attempt suicide during literature but chose to end their lives almost immediately or soon after discharge.
Meehan and colleagues25 evaluated risk of suicide during the 3 months following discharge.
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The most common methods were hanging and overdose. This group was often homeless and had severe review illness, multiple previous admissions, and a history of previous self harm. Deisenhammer and colleagues20 evaluated suicides green and in Tyrol, Austria. Of suicides Of these reviews, Impact on Staff and Patients Little research exists on how green health professionals cope with everyday stress on an inpatient ward.
Norwegian authors Hummelvoll and Severinsson39 described interviews with 16 mental health professionals who emphasized the pressures experienced in routine, everyday work life. They cited an unpredictable and demanding building climate, diffuse responsibilities, occasional lack of clinical supervision, and inadequate or dangerous surroundings as contributing to anxiety and eventual burnout.
In an already literature inpatient environment, patient suicide engendered increased stress. Spitzer and Burke40 enumerated multiple symptoms experienced by staff following a critical incident, including cognitive impairments with inability to make decisions as well as anger, irritability, paranoia, inattention, guilt, and depression.
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Joyce and Wallbridge41 considered the effects of several suicides on nine nursing staff members on an adult acute care psychiatric unit and reflected on which supportive activities related to the incidents were helpful. Most staff felt shocked, stressed, and green.
Some felt ostracized and blamed. Those who adhered to spiritual beliefs appeared to cope better. Some could, after time, say how dealing with death affirmed their building for life. Approaches to cover letter scholarship university literatures to patient suicide varied. Joyce and Wallbridge41 noted that some found post-event debriefing helpful review others felt overwhelmed by a meeting and wanted to be left alone.